Hydrologyscientific discipline concerned with the waters of the Earthincluding their occurrence, distribution, and circulation via the hydrologic cycle and interactions with living things. It also deals with the chemical and physical properties of water in all its phases. A brief treatment of hydrology follows. For full treatment, see hydrologic sciences.
Hydrology has as its primary objective the study of the interrelationship between water and its environment. As hydrology is mainly concerned with water close to the land surface, it focuses on those components of the hydrologic cycle that occur there—namely, precipitation, evapotranspirationrunoff, and groundwater.
What is Hydrology?
Its various subdisciplines deal with different aspects of these phenomena. Hydrometeorology, for example, concentrates on water in the lower boundary layer of the atmosphere, while hydrometry involves the measurement of surface water, especially precipitation and streamflow. Hydrography entails the description and mapping of large bodies of surface water, such as lakes, inland seas, and oceans.Rispondimi presto in inglese
On the other hand, groundwater hydrology centres on subsurface water in the saturated zone, and soil-water physics on that in the unsaturated zone. Hydrology draws upon the disciplines of geologychemistrysoil scienceand plant physiology, employing many of their principles and methods. Researchers in the field rely increasingly on computer simulations of natural hydrologic systems and remote-sensing techniques, as, for example, the use of Earth-orbiting satellites equipped with infrared cameras to detect bodies of polluted water or to trace the flow of hot springs.
Hydrologic research is important in the development, management, and control of water resources. Its applications are manifold and include irrigation-systems development, flood and land-erosion control, waste-water disposal and treatment, pollution abatement, recreational use of water, fish and wildlife preservation, hydropower generation, and the design of hydraulic structures. Hydrology Article Additional Info. Print Cite verified Cite. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter.
Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History. Britannica Quiz. Groundwater Quiz.
Hydrology MCQ Questions Answers Civil Engineering
You may know all about what happens to water aboveground, but what do you know about groundwater? Test your knowledge with this quiz. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles: hydrologic sciences: Study of the waters close to the land surface.
Hydrology deals with that part of the water cycle from the arrival of water at the land surface as precipitation to its eventual loss from the land either by evaporation or transpiration back to the atmosphere or by surface and subsurface flow to the sea. Considered as a resource, water and waterpower are also abundant, although supplies are rather unevenly distributed.Chemical hydrologyalso called Hydrochemistrysubdivision of hydrology that deals with the chemical characteristics of the water on and beneath the surface of the Earth.
Water in all forms and modes of occurrence is affected chemically by the materials with which it comes into contact. Often called the universal solvent, water has the ability to dissolve many elements in significant quantities. Chemical hydrology concerns itself with the processes involved and thus includes studies of exceedingly diverse phenomena.
The transport of salts from land to sea by erosion of rocks and surface runoff and from sea to land by evaporation, cloud formation, and precipitationthe age and origin of groundwater in desert regions, and the paleotemperature determinations based on isotope analyses of ice sheets and glaciers are a few examples. Chemical hydrology Article Additional Info. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.
Read More on This Topic. The chemical history of seawater in the oceans has been divided into three stages. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Watera substance composed of the chemical elements hydrogen and oxygen and existing in gaseous, liquid, and solid states.
It is one of the most plentiful and essential of compounds. A tasteless and odourless liquid at room temperature, it has the important ability to dissolve many other substances. Indeed, the…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox!
Email address.Hydrology - The Hydrologic Cycle - Part 1 - Civil Engineering - Simplified Learning
By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice.Hydrogeology hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust commonly in aquifers.
The terms groundwater hydrologygeohydrologyand hydrogeology are often used interchangeably. Groundwater engineering, another name for hydrogeology, is a branch of engineering which is concerned with groundwater movement and design of wells, pumps, and drains. Wells are constructed for use in developing nations, as well as for use in developed nations in places which are not connected to a city water system. Wells must be designed and maintained to uphold the integrity of the aquifer, and to prevent contaminants from reaching the groundwater.
Controversy arises in the use of groundwater when its usage impacts surface water systems, or when human activity threatens the integrity of the local aquifer system. Hydrogeology is an interdisciplinary subject; it can be difficult to account fully for the chemicalphysicalbiological and even legal interactions between soilwaternature and society. The study of the interaction between groundwater movement and geology can be quite complex. Groundwater does not always follow the surface topography ; groundwater follows pressure gradients flow from high pressure to lowoften through fractures and conduits in circuitous paths.
Taking into account the interplay of the different facets of a multi-component system often requires knowledge in several diverse fields at both the experimental and theoretical levels. The following is a more traditional introduction to the methods and nomenclature of saturated subsurface hydrology. Hydrogeology, as stated above, is a branch of the earth sciences dealing with the flow of water through aquifers and other shallow porous media typically less than m below the land surface.
The very shallow flow of water in the subsurface the upper 3 m is pertinent to the fields of soil scienceagriculture and civil engineeringas well as to hydrogeology. The general flow of fluids water, hydrocarbonsgeothermal fluids, etc. Groundwater is a slow-moving, viscous fluid with a Reynolds number less than unity ; many of the empirically derived laws of groundwater flow can be alternately derived in fluid mechanics from the special case of Stokes flow viscosity and pressure terms, but no inertial term.
The mathematical relationships used to describe the flow of water through porous media are Darcy's lawthe diffusion and Laplace equations, which have applications in many diverse fields.
Steady groundwater flow Laplace equation has been simulated using electricalelastic and heat conduction analogies. Transient groundwater flow is analogous to the diffusion of heat in a solid, therefore some solutions to hydrological problems have been adapted from heat transfer literature. Traditionally, the movement of groundwater has been studied separately from surface water, climatologyand even the chemical and microbiological aspects of hydrogeology the processes are uncoupled.Osten and victor facebook
As the field of hydrogeology matures, the strong interactions between groundwater, surface waterwater chemistrysoil moisture and even climate are becoming more clear. California and Washington both require special certification of hydrogeologists to offer professional services to the public.
For example: aquifer drawdown or overdrafting and the pumping of fossil water may be a contributing factor to sea-level rise. One of the main tasks a hydrogeologist typically performs is the prediction of future behavior of an aquifer system, based on analysis of past and present observations.Batrachotoxin mechanism of action
Some hypothetical, but characteristic questions asked would be:. Most of these questions can be addressed through simulation of the hydrologic system using numerical models or analytic equations. Accurate simulation of the aquifer system requires knowledge of the aquifer properties and boundary conditions. Therefore, a common task of the hydrogeologist is determining aquifer properties using aquifer tests.
In order to further characterize aquifers and aquitards some primary and derived physical properties are introduced below.Register now or log in to join your professional community. Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water throughout the Earth. Ecological processes with hydrology are in focus of ecohydrology. Water is also present in the atmosphere in solid, liquid, and vapor states. Water is important in many geological processes.
Hydro means under earth so Hydrology is the science which deals with surface and underground water. The Hydrology relates to the existence of water on the earth surface.Stiefmütterchen bekommen gelbe blätter
So No. Download the Bayt. Products By Bayt. Use Our Mobile App. Get Fresh Updates On your job applications, and stay connected. Download Now.
Start networking and exchanging professional insights Register now or log in to join your professional community. Follow Hydrology is the science which deals with 1: rain water 2: river water 3: sea water 4: surface and underground water. Upvote 3 Views Followers Write an Answer Register now or log in to answer.
Upvote 2 Downvote 0 Reply 0. Upvote 2 Downvote 0 Reply 2. Surface and underground water, in different layers. Upvote 1 Downvote 0 Reply 0. Answer added by Deleted user 5 years ago. C 5 years ago. I agree with Jacob Alomer 4: surface and underground water.These resources are either being polluted by human lifestyle, rendered unsuitable due to negligence and mismanagement, or their quantity is fast diminishing due to exhaustive extraction and consumption.
With this state of affairs, in rece With this state of affairs, in recent times, knowledge of the science of water has gained an impetus many times its original scale; and with that, its acquisition, expansion, research, advancement, and dissemination have become more important. With so many dimensions of hydrology available for exploration, research, and technological advancement, any contributory work will find its right place.
This book will play its part in furthering the knowledge of the science of water and will prove useful reading for various cross-sections of academia, researchers, engineers, hydrologists, and all categories of water consumers. By Vanessa J. Downer and Sergei Marchinko. This is made possible by the EU reverse charge method. Edited by Muhammad Salik Javaid. Edited by Walid Elshorbagy.
Edited by Robert Y. Edited by Kuan-Yeow Show. Published: September 11th DOI: Russell Open access peer-reviewed 3. Burakov Open access peer-reviewed 4. Downer and Sergei Marchinko Edited Volume and chapters are indexed in. Open access peer-reviewed 1. Open access peer-reviewed 2. Open access peer-reviewed 3.Sign Up to The Constructor to ask questions, answer questions, write articles, and connect with other people.
Engineering hydrology is the science of water resource engineering which deals with the study of occurrence, distribution, movement and the properties of water on the earth or beneath the earth surface or in the atmosphere.
The study of hydrology can help in determining the maximum probable flood that can occur at a particular location. Its frequency is also determined that is essential for the design of hydraulic structures like dams and reservoirs, channels and other flood control structures.
For the design of dams and municipal water supply units, river navigation etc it is necessary to determine the occurrence, the frequency and the quantity of water that can be yielded from a basin. This is performed in hydrology. The knowledge on hydro-geology of the area helps to understand the groundwater development that influences the recharge facilities like reservoirs and streams, climate, cropping pattern etc. The maximum intensity of storms influences the design of drainage projects, which are studied in hydrology in depth.
Residence time This is the time which is taken by a water particle in crossing one particular phase of the hydrological cycle Catchment area The area draining into a river or stream is called the catchment area. This is also called as watershed in U. S Hydrology catchment area Ridge This is a line which demarkets one catchment area from its neighbouring catchment area. This is called as divide or water divide and watershed in U.
SlideShare Explore Search You. Submit Search. Home Explore. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Hydrology Introduction Catchment Area and water budget equation. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this presentation?Conformational meaning in hindi
Why not share! Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Education. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Maria Antonette Francisco.
No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. No notes for slide. Hydrology Introduction Catchment Area and water budget equation 1.
Hydrometery It is the science and practice of water flow measurement. HYDROLOGY Residence time This is the time which is taken by a water particle in crossing one particular phase of the hydrological cycle Catchment area The area draining into a river or stream is called the catchment area.
This is also called as water shed in U.
- Specialistica economia aziendale unical
- Anaphoric and cataphoric reference exercises
- Huawei hilink apk for pc
- X96w android 7.1 tv box
- Install xrandr centos 7
- Venice film festival 2019
- Nicola formichetti lady gaga
- Per inerzia in inglese
- 15th international brigade irish
- Noah name meaning hebrew
- Biofeedback therapy at home
- Lalchi kutta in english
- Gradle exec execcommand == null
- Nginx ingress annotations rewrite
- Altronic controls garland texas
- Entsafter test stiftung warentest 2020
- Owain fire emblem quotes